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COVID-19 Waves - Differences, Implications, And Learnings

Author: Dr. Tapas Kumar Sahoo

MD, FNB, FICCM, FCCP, EDIC, MBA, Canadian Critical Care Fellowship, Associate Director & Head, Critical Care, Medanta Hospital, Ranchi, India

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Coronavirus illness (COVID-19) is a communicable disease caused by a new discovered coronavirus. A virus is termed a scourge once there's a growth in cases. Several countries have experienced a two-wave pattern according to cases of COVID-19. The surge of COVID-19 globally was a bulk health crisis evenly distributed over multiple geographical locations. This study aims to match the characteristics of various waves throughout the COVID-19 pandemic in various countries.  A retrospective cohort study was conducted from Jan 2020 to mid-2021 (17 months) to work out the quantity of SARS-CoV-2 screenings and confirmed cases and deaths still as sociodemographic characteristics like gender, age, status, and supply population in danger factors. The explicit information was compared employing several records.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID mortality rate, Mutation, 2019-nCoV, COVID-19 fatality rate



COVID-19 and Different Waves

Coronaviruses are zoonotic, which means that the viruses are transmitted between animals and humans. It’s been determined that MERS-CoV was transmitted from camels to humans and SARS-CoV from civet cats to humans. The spread of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) is nonetheless to be determined; however, investigations are in progress to spot the vector to the outbreak (figure 1) [1].

Combined COVID mortality rate is way higher within the transatlantic region, comprising north and South America, and Europe (and the contiguous Central Asian, geographic area and geographical regions). It’s considerably lower within the remainder of Asia and the continent.


Figure 1: The data has been aggregated into 11 successive six-weekly snapshots beginning from 6 March to 21 April 2021, and ending 21 April to 8 June 2021.

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All regions have had 2 waves; however, there are temporal variations in peak. The primary wave peaked in Europe between early 2020 and mid-2020, and therefore, the second wave between the months of 2021 [2].

The second wave is well past its peak in Western Europe and North America, however still raging in Japan, Europe, South America, Turkey, Iran, African nations and India. India’s second wave began in February-March 2021. 50% of the COVID deaths in India up to now have occurred throughout the six weeks ending 6th June 2021 (figure 1).

In distinction, India, despite high combination mortality, features a lot of lower official mortality of 250 per million. India’s death rate is yet over double as high because of the average for South and East Asia [2].


First Wave Lead to Disruption


On 31 December 2019, a cluster of cases of respiratory disease of unknown cause, within the town of metropolis, Wuhan province in China, was rumoured to the global Health Organisation. In January 2020, an antecedent unknown new virus was identified, afterward named the 2019 novel Coronavirus, and samples obtained from cases and analysis of the virus biology indicated that this was the explanation for the Mutation. It was declared a pestilence on March 11, 2020, by World Health Organization (WHO), the deadly SARS-CoV-2 virus continues to disrupt public life across the globe (figure 2) [3, 4].

Diagnosis and Prevention

The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is that the most habitually used methodology hitherto to notice SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, many different quicker and correct assays area unit being developed for the designation of COVID-19 attending to management the surge of infection through the identification of patients and immediate isolation. During this review, we'll discuss the varied detection ways of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as well as the recent developments in immunologic assays, amplification techniques likewise as biosensors [5].


How can COVID-19 be Prevented or Avoided? [6]

  • Maintain a secure distance from others, although they don’t seem to vomit up
  • Wear a mask publically, particularly inside or once physical distancing isn't doable
  • Choose open, well-ventilated areas over closed ones. Open a window if inside
  • Clean your hands usually. Use soap and water, or associate alcohol-based hand rubs
  • Get immunized once it’s your flip. Follow native steerage concerning vaccination
  • Cover your nose and mouth together with your bent elbow or a tissue after you cough or sneeze
  • Stay home if you are feeling unwell